Past a few years, new discoveries have been made.
dated 28 Mar 45, re “Special question on Koreans” (1945)
18. All Korean prostitutes that PoW have seen in the Pacific were volunteers or had been sold by their parents into prostitution. This is proper in the Korean way of thinking but direct conscription of women by the Japanese would be an outrage that the old and young alike would not tolerate. Men would rise up in a rage, killing Japanese no matter what consequence they might suffer.
Right. If, like Koreans today claim, Imperial Japanese government and army systematically kidnap and enslaved, raped and massacred the Korean women, WHAT A HELL WERE KOREAN MEN DOING AT THE TIME? Nothing?
Actually, recent discovery of Comfort Stations (Brothel） manager’s diary showed that it was Korean man who run the Brothel.
Diary of a Japanese Military Brothel Manager is a book of diaries written by a clerk working in Japanese military brothels, also known as “comfort stations”, in Burma and Singapore during World War II. The author, a Korean businessman, kept a daily diary between 1922 and 1957. This diary was discovered by historian An Byeong-jik in 2012 and published in South Korea in 2013.
The Diary of a Japanese Military Brothel Manager is regarded as an important and credible contemporary document on the workings of Japan’s comfort women system. The diary sheds light on the extent to which the comfort women should be regarded as “sex slaves”, and the level of control which the Japanese military exercised over the military brothels.
Date Interrogated: Aug. 20 – Sept. 10, 1944
A “comfort girl” is nothing more than a prostitute or “professional camp follower” attached to the Japanese Army for the benefit of the soldiers. The word “comfort girl” is peculiar to the Japanese. Other reports show the “comfort girls” have been found wherever it was necessary for the Japanese Army to fight. This report however deals only with the Korean “comfort girls” recruited by the Japanese and attached to their Army in Burma.
The picture above is a newspaper ad to recruit of Comfort Women in 1944 in Korea(Japan at the time).
Five South Koreans convicted in US over sex-trafficking ring
Nov 9, 2007
NEW YORK (AFP) — Five South Koreans were found guilty in a New York court Friday of involvement in a sex-trafficking ring involving a string of brothels across the northeastern United States, officials said.
Korean-American officer Admits He Helped Thwart a Brothel’s Rivals
Published: December 28, 2007
The former officer, Dennis Kim, 31, pleaded guilty in United States District Court in Brooklyn to a federal charge of conspiracy to commit extortion in his capacity as a police officer. The plea enables him to avoid a trial and the prospect of a lengthy jail sentence.
Arrest made in spa-sex case
Wednesday, May 21, 2008
Federal authorities say they have busted the leader of a national prostitution ring – a 50-year-old Cheviot woman.
Yong Williams admitted to undercover agents that she drove 40,000 miles in seven months, delivering Korean women to massage parlors across the nation that were fronts for brothels, according to federal court records.
The court has also made several notable prosecutions of human traffickers. In 2006, 40 people were indicted on charges of running brothels staffed by more than 70 Korean sex slaves. Investigators said the suspects smuggled the Korean women through Canada and Mexico. “You have organized crime syndicates compromising border security, bringing people in, putting them in terrible danger, and then trafficking them in the United States. A terrible problem and a very, very difficult problem to get at,” he said.
Just like that.
Imperial Japan’s Police arrested illegal Korean dealers who kidnapped and sold women into brothels.
The picture above is a little news report saying “Korean who kidnapped and sold women into brothels has arrested.” in 1940.
You can find some more on these.
Comfort Women Articles by Scholars
And, finally, I have to point out that there were the US army’s Comfort Stations in Korea after WWII.
Prostitutes in South Korea for the U.S. military
Prostitutes servicing members of the U.S. military in South Korea have been known locally under a variety of terms. Yankee princess (Hangul: 양공주 —also translated as Western princess) is a common name and literal meaning for the prostitutes in the Gijichon, U.S. military Camp Towns) in South Korea. Yankee whore (Hangul: 양갈보 Yanggalbo) and Western whore are also a common name. The women are also referred to as U.N. madams (Hangul: 유엔마담 , U.N. madam). Juicy girls is a common name for Filipina prostitutes. The term “Western princess” has been commonly used in the press, such as The Dong-a Ilbo for decades. On the other hand, it is also used as an insulting epithet.
Until the early 1990s, the term Wianbu (Hangul: 위안부 , “Comfort Women”) was often used by South Korean media and officials to refer to prostitutes for the U.S. military, but comfort women was also the euphemism used for the sex slaves for the Imperial Japanese Army, and in order to avoid confusions, the term yanggongju replaced wianbu to refer to sexual laborers for the U.S. military. The early 1990s also saw the two women’s rights movements diverge: on one side the one representing the Cheongsindae (Comfort women for the Japanese military), and on the other side the movement representing the Gijichon (Camptown for the US military), even if some women happen to have been victims of forced labor on both sides. Now some South Korean media use the term migun wianbu (미군 위안부, 美軍慰安婦 “US military comfort women”), literally American Comfort Women.
Wait. Why it is titled “Prostitutes in South Korea for the U.S. military”? If you call Imperial Japanese uses Comfort Women, you call it “Sex Slaves”, but when the US army uses Comfort Women, it is “prostitution”. What a double standard.
And those “Prostitutes” sued Korean Goverment in 2014.
South Korea: Suit Against Government for Forced Prostitution after 1957
The Library of Congress
(July 9, 2014) On June 25, 2014, 122 women sued the Korean government, claiming that they were forced to engage in sexual intercourse for money for members of the United States military who were stationed in Korea after the Korean War cease-fire in 1957. (Toru Higashioka, Former “Comfort Women” Serving U.S. Military File Damages Lawsuit, ASAHI SHINBUN (June 28, 2014).)
The involvement of the Korean government in the prostitution around U.S. military bases only slowly became public knowledge. (KATHARINE H.S. MOON, SEX AMONG ALLIES (1997); Sang-hun Choe, Ex-Prostitutes Say South Korea and U.S. Enabled Sex Trade Near Bases, NY TIMES (Jan. 7, 2009).) In 2012, the Gender Equality and Family Committee of the National Assembly asked the Ministry of Gender Equality & Family to investigate the issue and establish a policy. However, the Ministry did not send the result of the investigation to the Committee. Because the government did not do anything to further the investigation, the plaintiffs and their support groups decided to file the lawsuit. (“Camp Town Women Control” Disclosure of Document Signed by Park Chung-hee [in Korean], HANKYOREH (Nov. 6, 2013).)
Some evidence of the government’s involvement was found recently. In 2013, National Assembly member Sung-hui Yu submitted to the Committee a document, “Camp Town Clean-up Measures,” that was created by the administrative affairs department of the President’s Office in April 1957 and signed by the former President, Park Chung-hee, on May 2, 1957. The document stated that 9,935 women lived in 62 camp towns (villages around U.S. military bases). The document proposed measures to work toward:
eradication of sexually transmitted diseases;
improvement of conditions in the villages;
provision of clean water; and
other steps. (Id.)
At a press conference about the lawsuit, members of support groups stated that some of the 122 women went to the camp towns because they were poor and could not make a living otherwise after the war. Some of them were sent there through human trafficking. They were forced by violent means to sell their bodies to American soldiers. The government exploited them in order to earn U.S. dollars. The plaintiffs are seeking an apology from the government and approximately US$10,000 each in damages. The supporters explained that the amount was decided somewhat randomly, because it was necessary to specify an amount for the litigation. (“Camp Town Women’s” Group Files Lawsuits for Damages Against the Government [in Korean], YONHAP NEWS (June 25, 2014).)
Did the US president apologized and pay? No.
Former Korean ‘comfort women’ for U.S. troops sue own government – reuters
Fri Jul 11, 2014 | 6:45am EDT
Cho Myung-ja ran away from home as a teenager to escape a father who beat her, finding her way to the red light district in a South Korean town that hosts a large U.S. Army garrison.
After she escaped home in the early 1960s, her pimp sold her to one of the brothels allowed by the government to serve American soldiers.
“It was a hard life and we got sick,” Cho, 76, said in an interview in her cluttered room in a shack outside Camp Humphreys, a busy U.S. military garrison in the town of Pyeongtaek, south of Seoul.
On June 25, sixty-four years after the Korean War broke out, Cho joined 122 surviving comfort women, as they were called, in a lawsuit against their government to reclaim, they say, human dignity and proper compensation.
The suit comes as an embarrassing distraction for the South Korean government, which has pushed Japan to properly atone for what it says were World War Two atrocities including forcing women, many of them Korean, to serve as sex slaves for its soldiers.
The women claim the South Korean government trained them and worked with pimps to run a sex trade through the 1960s and 1970s for U.S. troops, encouraged women to work as prostitutes and violated their human rights.
The suit was lodged with the Seoul Central District Court and Reuters has seen the document laying out the accusations against the government and a demand for 10 million won ($9,800) in compensation per plaintiff.
The Ministry of Gender Equality and Family declined to comment on the lawsuit. The U.S. military in South Korea said it was aware of reports of the lawsuit.
“USFK has a zero tolerance for prostitution and human trafficking,” a U.S. Forces in Korea spokesman said in response to a request for comment. “Prostitution and human trafficking are cruel, demeaning and incompatible with our military core values.”
The South Korean government was desperate to keep U.S. troops in the 1960s after a devastating but inconclusive war with North Korea and wanted the women to serve as “patriots” and “civilian diplomats”.
The virtuous-sounding titles did little to reflect the life they led. They say they were forced by the South Korean government to undergo degrading checkups for sexually transmitted diseases and if the test was positive, locked up until they were “fit” to work.
“To make sure we didn’t pass on some disease to foreigners, we were tested twice a week, and if it looked abnormal, we would be locked up on the fourth floor, unlocking the door only at meal times, and some people broke their legs trying to escape,” Cho said amid the frequent hum of military aircraft.
Afterwards, they say they were neglected and forgotten, left to live out their lives in poverty, stigmatized for having worked as prostitutes.
The lawsuit is a culmination of work by a handful of small and regional NGOs that came together in 2008 to gather their testimonies and seek legal advice.
This week, an opposition member of parliament led a group of 10 liberal lawmakers to introduce a bill calling for a probe into the program, formal recognition for the contribution made by the women and financial compensation.
Hundreds of former prostitutes continue to live clustered around military bases in South Korea, many of them ill and poor, without family and financially unable to move.
Working through the 1960s and 1970s, the women say they were treated as commodities used to boost a post-war economy.
“They say we were patriots at the time, but now they couldn’t care less,” said another former prostitute, Kim Sook-ja, 70. “We didn’t fight with guns or bayonets but we worked for the country and earned dollars.”
($1 = 1,020 won)
Claims South Korea Provided Sex Slaves for U.S. Troops Go to Court – The Wall Street Journal.
Now, it is the US turn to admit and apologize to Japan for falsely accusing!
The US army even used Japanese Comfort Stations in Japan.
What a hypocrite.
The Associated Press
Wednesday, April 25, 2007; 9:45 PM
TOKYO — Japan’s abhorrent practice of enslaving women to provide sex for its troops in World War II has a little-known sequel: After its surrender _ with tacit approval from the U.S. occupation authorities _ Japan set up a similar “comfort women” system for American GIs.
An Associated Press review of historical documents and records _ some never before translated into English _ shows American authorities permitted the official brothel system to operate despite internal reports that women were being coerced into prostitution. The Americans also had full knowledge by then of Japan’s atrocious treatment of women in countries across Asia that it conquered during the war.
Tens of thousands of women were employed to provide cheap sex to U.S. troops until the spring of 1946, when Gen. Douglas MacArthur shut the brothels down.
The documents show the brothels were rushed into operation as American forces poured into Japan beginning in August 1945.
“Sadly, we police had to set up sexual comfort stations for the occupation troops,” recounts the official history of the Ibaraki Prefectural Police Department, whose jurisdiction is just northeast of Tokyo. “The strategy was, through the special work of experienced women, to create a breakwater to protect regular women and girls.”
The orders from the Ministry of the Interior came on Aug. 18, 1945, one day before a Japanese delegation flew to the Philippines to negotiate the terms of their country’s surrender and occupation.
The Ibaraki police immediately set to work. The only suitable facility was a dormitory for single police officers, which they quickly converted into a brothel. Bedding from the navy was brought in, along with 20 comfort women. The brothel opened for business Sept. 20.
“As expected, after it opened it was elbow to elbow,” the history says. “The comfort women … had some resistance to selling themselves to men who just yesterday were the enemy, and because of differences in language and race, there were a great deal of apprehensions at first. But they were paid highly, and they gradually came to accept their work peacefully.”
Police officials and Tokyo businessmen established a network of brothels under the auspices of the Recreation and Amusement Association, which operated with government funds. On Aug. 28, 1945, an advance wave of occupation troops arrived in Atsugi, just south of Tokyo. By nightfall, the troops found the RAA’s first brothel.
“I rushed there with two or three RAA executives, and was surprised to see 500 or 600 soldiers standing in line on the street,” Seiichi Kaburagi, the chief of public relations for the RAA, wrote in a 1972 memoir. He said American MPs were barely able to keep the troops under control.
Though arranged and supervised by the police and civilian government, the system mirrored the comfort stations established by the Japanese military abroad during the war.
Kaburagi wrote that occupation GIs paid upfront and were given tickets and condoms. The first RAA brothel, called Komachien _ The Babe Garden _ had 38 women, but due to high demand that was quickly increased to 100. Each woman serviced from 15 to 60 clients a day.
American historian John Dower, in his book “Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of WWII,” says the charge for a short session with a prostitute was 15 yen, or about a dollar, roughly the cost of half a pack of cigarettes.
Kaburagi said the sudden demand forced brothel operators to advertise for women who were not licensed prostitutes.
Natsue Takita, a 19-year-old Komachien worker whose relatives had been killed in the war, responded to an ad seeking an office worker. She was told the only positions available were for comfort women and was persuaded to accept the offer.
According to Kaburagi’s memoirs, published in Japanese after the occupation ended in 1952, Takita jumped in front of a train a few days after the brothel started operations.
“The worst victims … were the women who, with no previous experience, answered the ads calling for `Women of the New Japan,'” he wrote.
By the end of 1945, about 350,000 U.S. troops were occupying Japan. At its peak, Kaburagi wrote, the RAA employed 70,000 prostitutes to serve them. Although there are suspicions, there is not clear evidence non-Japanese comfort women were imported to Japan as part of the program.
Toshiyuki Tanaka, a history professor at the Hiroshima Peace Institute, cautioned that Kaburagi’s number is hard to document. But he added the RAA was also only part of the picture _ the number of private brothels outside the official system was likely even higher.
The U.S. occupation leadership provided the Japanese government with penicillin for comfort women servicing occupation troops, established prophylactic stations near the RAA brothels and, initially, condoned the troops’ use of them, according to documents discovered by Tanaka.
Occupation leaders were not blind to the similarities between the comfort women procured by Japan for its own troops and those it recruited for the GIs.
A Dec. 6, 1945, memorandum from Lt. Col. Hugh McDonald, a senior officer with the Public Health and Welfare Division of the occupation’s General Headquarters, shows U.S. occupation forces were aware the Japanese comfort women were often coerced.
“The girl is impressed into contracting by the desperate financial straits of her parents and their urging, occasionally supplemented by her willingness to make such a sacrifice to help her family,” he wrote. “It is the belief of our informants, however, that in urban districts the practice of enslaving girls, while much less prevalent than in the past, still exists.”
Amid complaints from military chaplains and concerns that disclosure of the brothels would embarrass the occupation forces back in the U.S., on March 25, 1946, MacArthur placed all brothels, comfort stations and other places of prostitution off limits. The RAA soon collapsed.
MacArthur’s primary concern was not only a moral one.
By that time, Tanaka says, more than a quarter of all American GIs in the occupation forces had a sexually transmitted disease.
“The nationwide off-limits policy suddenly put more than 150,000 Japanese women out of a job,” Tanaka wrote in a 2002 book on sexual slavery. Most continued to serve the troops illegally. Many had VD and were destitute, he wrote.
Under intense pressure, Japan’s government apologized in 1993 for its role in running brothels around Asia and coercing women into serving its troops. The issue remains controversial today.
In January, California Rep. Mike Honda offered a resolution in the House condemning Japan’s use of sex slaves, in part to renew pressure on Japan ahead of the closure of the Asian Women’s Fund, a private foundation created two years after the apology to compensate comfort women.
The fund compensated only 285 women in the Philippines, South Korea and Taiwan, out of an estimated 50,000-200,000 comfort women enslaved by Japan’s military in those countries during the war. Each received 2 million yen, about $17,800. A handful of Dutch and Indonesian women were also given assistance.
The fund closed, as scheduled, on March 31.
Haruki Wada, the fund’s executive director, said its creation marked an important change in attitude among Japan’s leadership and represented the will of Japan’s “silent majority” to see that justice is done. He also noted that although it was a private organization, the government was its main sponsor, kicking in 4.625 billion yen, about $40 million.
Even so, he admitted it fell short of expectations.
“The vast majority of the women did not come forward,” he said.
As a step toward acknowledging and resolving the exploitation of Japanese women, however, it was a complete failure.
Though they were free to do so, no Japanese women sought compensation.
“Not one Japanese woman has come forward to seek compensation or an apology,” Wada said. “Unless they feel they can say they were completely forced against their will, they feel they cannot come forward.”
Oh, by the way, there is a French ones too.
Bordel militaire de campagne
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A BMC in Morocco in the 1920s
Bordels Mobiles de Campagne or Bordel Militaire de Campagne (both abbreviated to BMC) is a French term for the mobile brothels which were used during World War I, Second World War, and First Indochina War to supply prostitution services to French soldiers who were facing combat in areas where brothels were unusual, such as at the front line or in isolated garrisons. In France, brothels were outlawed in 1946 by the “loi Marthe Richard”. In the French Foreign Legion (Légion Etrangère), they were in use until the late 1990s, when a scandal revealed that a staff of three was officially employed by a military unit of 100 men in Africa.
The last operational B.M.C. in territorial France, was operated by the 2nd. Regiment of the Foreign Legion in the town of Calvi, Corsica; it was closed in 1978. The last BMC to close in France’s overseas territories was the one operated Kourou, closed in 1995. Until 2003, a BMC was in operation in a military base of the Foreign Legion in Djibouti.
These mobile brothels were in some cases officially organized by the army. They consisted of large trailer trucks in which up to ten women would work. The first references to these BMC’s were in World War I, and they are noted particularly in the Indochina War and the Algerian War. In the Indochina War, the French used women from the Ouled Naïl tribe of the highlands of Algeria. BMC’s were known to have a significant role in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and were an avenue of attack by female Viet Minh sympathizers. There was a vast BMC in Saigon known as “the park of the buffaloes”, and in January 1954, a BMC containing Vietnamese and Algerian prostitutes was flown to Dien Bien Phu. Here, the prostitutes became nursing assistants for the French garrison during the siege, though they were sent for reeducation by the Viet Minh after the French garrison fell.
France’s military brothels: Hidden history of the First World War – http://www.france24.com/